Expectations

This page contains information regarding goals, objectives, Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills, and popular student misconceptions.


Goals  Objectives                                                                   TEKS
Students will gain an understanding and experience of survey design and implementation SWBAT
Design an appropriate survey question 111.47.2e - formulate a meaningful question, determine the data needed to answer the question, gather the appropriate data, analyze the data, and draw reasonable conclusions;
Implement school-wide survey

111.39.1a - apply mathematics to problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace
 112.34.2f - collect data individually or collaboratively, make measurements with precision and accuracy, record values using appropriate units, and calculate statistically relevant quantities to describe data, including mean, median, and range
Choose and implement an appropriate sampling method for a survey111.47.2a - Compare and contrast the benefits of different sampling techniques, including random sampling and convenience sampling methods
Identify the sample population 111.47.3d - describe and model variability using population and sampling distributions.
Create a graph of the sample data 111.47.4b -represent and summarize data and justify the representation; 111.47.4d - compare and contrast different graphical or visual representations given the same data set
Implement and understand the results of statistical summaries and tests. 111.47.4e - compare and contrast meaningful information derived from summary statistics given a data set;
112.34.2g - analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data
Identify and contrast categorical data and quantitative data
111.47.4a - distinguish between categorical and quantitative data; 

Students will become familiar with probability and comfortable calculating the probability of discrete events
Communicate the difference between theoretical and empirical probabilities 111.47.5b - describe the relationship between theoretical and empirical probabilities using the Law of Large Numbers;
Calculate the Probability  of a particular gene occurring given a circumstance
111.47.5a - determine probabilities, including the use of a two-way table;
Students will be exposed to statistical methods and be able to explain the steps of a chi^2 test.
Use and interpret a chi^2 test
 111.47.6f - explain how sample a sample statistic provides evidence against a claim about a population parameter when using a hypothesis test
111.47.6h - explain the meaning of the p-value in relation to the significance level in providing evidence to reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis in the context of the situation;
Create a null and alternative hypothesis statement 111.47.6g -construct null and alternative hypothesis statements about a population parameter;
Students will learn about genetics
Create 2x2 and 4x4 Punnett Squares 112.34.6f - predict possible outcomes of various genetic combinations such as monohybrid crosses, dihybrid crosses, and non-Mendelian inheritance
Explain results of Punnett Squares by means of a ratio of phenotypes and genotypes 111.34.1b - gather and record data and use data sets to determine functional relationships between quantities
Determine the phenotype of individuals based on genotypes from Punnett Squares 112.34.6f - predict possible outcomes of various genetic combinations such as monohybrid crosses, dihybrid crosses, and non-Mendelian inheritance
Predict how hanging genotype will affect the phenotype of an individual.112.34.6f - predict possible outcomes of various genetic combinations such as monohybrid crosses, dihybrid crosses, and non-Mendelian inheritance
Describe Mendel's findings on heredity, including discovery of alleles112.34.3f - research and describe the history of biology and contributions of scientists
Describe and differentiate between recessive and dominant alleles, genotypes and phenotypes, and homozygous and heterozygous genotypes 112.34.3b - communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials 

Identify and use dominant vs. recessive traits in Punnett Squares112.34.6f - predict possible outcomes of various genetic combinations such as monohybrid crosses, dihybrid crosses, and non-Mendelian inheritance
Explain how meiosis leads to the pattern we see in Punnett Squares112.34.c6g - recognize the significance of meiosis to sexual reproduction
Students will become better at writing and communicating ideas.
Insert pictures from GeoGebra into LaTeX110.31.23c - uses graphics and illustrations to help explain concepts where appropriate;
Create a report in LaTeX110.31.1a - determine the meaning of grade-level technical academic English words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;
110.31.11b - analyze factual, quantitative, or technical data presented in multiple graphical sources.
110.31.13b - structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and the rhetorical devices used to convey meaning;
110.31.13c - revise drafts to improve style, word choice, figurative language, sentence variety, and subtlety of meaning after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;
110.31.13d - edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and
110.31.13e - revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.
Give a presentation 110.31.23a - marshals evidence in support of a clear thesis statement and related claims;
110.31.23b - provides an analysis for the audience that reflects a logical progression of ideas and a clearly stated point of view;
110.31.24a - listen responsively to a speaker by taking notes that summarize, synthesize, or highlight the speaker's ideas for critical reflection and by asking questions related to the content for clarification and elaboration;
110.31.24c - evaluate the effectiveness of a speaker's main and supporting ideas
Students will become familiar with the use and assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. 
Explain why the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium is an ideal case, and will not work unless each assumption is met.  112.34.c3e - evaluate models according to their limitations in representing biological objects or events; and
Explain how absence of any assumption would disrupt the equilibrium. 112.34.c7f - analyze and evaluate the effects of other evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic drift, gene flow, mutation, and recombination
Identify and describe the components of the equation, p and q. 111.32.3a - use symbols to represent unknowns and variables 

Solve for p and q using the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium equation;
(p+q)2 = p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
 111.32.4a - find specific function values, simplify polynomial expressions, transform and solve equations, and factor as necessary in problem situations 
111.32.9d - analyze graphs of quadratic functions and draw conclusions
111.32.10a - solve quadratic equations using concrete models, tables, graphs, and algebraic methods  

Students will understand how population and environmental factors affect allele frequencies.  
Determine how birth rates, death rates, immigration/emigration rates, and other limiting factors such as resource availability, predation, etc. lead to changes in a population. 112.34.7f - analyze and evaluate the effects of other evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic drift, gene flow, mutation, and recombination c7(D) analyze and evaluate how the elements of natural selection, including inherited variation, the potential of a population to produce more offspring than can survive, and a finite supply of environmental resources, result in differential reproductive success
Graph population growth or decline patterns for each scenario. 122.34.2g - analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data 111.32.2c - interpret situations in terms of given graphs or creates situations that fit given graphs 
Create poster explaining findings and graphs. 112.34.2g - analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data
Perform internet search to find reliable information112.34.3a - in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student
112.34.3b - communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials;
Perform gallery walk and present findings to classmates.  112.34.2h - communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

Student Misconceptions

This unit was created with misconceptions in mind. The authors of this unit were heavily influences by Michael McCloskey’s “Intuitive physics.” In this article, McCloskey expresses a constructivists approach to dealing with misconceptions through direct action. The core idea behind McCloskey’s method is to expose students to situations where their intuition fails. To do this, we begin the unit by having student read the launch letter and respond to each of the requests for investigation before exploring them. This keys the instructor into what the students know and do not know, giving the teacher the opportunity to adjust future portions of the unit. A list of observed misconceptions can be found below.


 Misconception Plan to deal with misconception
1. Recessive traits will eventually disappear from the population. 
Inquiry two will cover this misconception by having students do research on whether or not red hair (a recessive trait) will die out.  There will be a class discussion on what they think on the subject, and then will be asked do some research on the internet to clarify.  They'll need to include evidence in their findings.  We will also be sure to emphasize that any trait can be lost in a population if natural selection makes it unfavorable, but the same could be said for any dominant trait.
2. Non-hereditary influences on phenotypeThese influences will be addressed in the Mendelian genetics benchmark presentation.  
3. A dominate trait is the most likely to be found in the populationThere will be a discussion of a certain type of dwarfism and how it is passed from one generation to the next.  The allele for dwarfism is actually a dominant allele, though it is not the most common form seen in the population.  
4. One set of alleles is responsible for determining each trait, and there are only two different alleles for each geneThere will be a discussion of eye color and the high variation we see, within the classroom alone.  Students will be asked to guess how many alleles may be involved in all the different eye colors we see in the population.
5. Your genes determine all of your characteristicsThis will be addressed along with misconception #2 during the
mendelian genetics presentation. 


McCloskey, M. (1983). Intuitive physics. Scientific American, 248, 122-130.