Every lesson plan incorporated in this unit was created through the 5E model developed by Biological Science Curriculum Study (BSCS) in the 1980's. We choose to implement this learning cycle because it is the learning cycle that the authors of this unit are most familiar with and due to its previous success.

 Monday  Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Engage: Students will each receive a letter from an incoming 8th grader who will be taking this same biology course next year. The letter includes some common misconceptions about genetics, and requests help from the students by means of an informational packet describing what they learned in this class. In addition, the letter also poses a question about traits, and how common certain traits are in the population. This is used to segue the students into the project for the semester: designing and implementing a schoolwide survey to determine how common certain traits are, and development of a report describing their findings and what they learned during the unit. This will get students interested in the unit long PBI project to come.

Explore: Teacher and students will have a discussion about heritable traits, examples, and those seen within the classroom, and those they wish to examine. The teacher asks how we would find out about the frequency of the traits in our school population, leading into the topic of a school-wide survey.  

Explain: Teacher and students discuss the survey to come, and how to design good survey questions. 
Elaborate: Students are broken up into groups of two and asked to generate a survey for their families to answer.  

Evaluate: Students are asked to write two survey questions down on a piece of paper and hand it to the teacher as they leave.
Engage: Students will bring back their take-home surveys and there will be a class discussion of what they found.  

Explore: The results of all surveys will be compiled into a graph. Students will tally up how many people in their family expressed each trait and add them to an excel sheet for the class data, which will be used to generate a graph. The teacher will ask students to compare their family’s results to those of the class graph.  

Explain: The teacher explains that designing a survey for your families may be different from designing one for the whole school. The teacher tells students about biases and how they can affect the results of the survey.  

Elaborate: In groups of 4, students will come up with a method of implementation for the school-wide survey. After the groups have come up with an idea, we will discuss as a class and decide which implementation, or combination would be best.  

Evaluate: Students will be given an exit ticket asking them to explain how their survey question and implementation avoids bias.  

Engage: As students walk in they will pick up a bell ringer question asking about common misconceptions of mendelian genetics. As an engagement students will be shown a short video clip on Mendelian Genetics.

Explore: Class discussion on recessive and dominant traits. What does the class think this means? This is a possible time to address misconceptions. 

Explain: Teacher will give a presentation over concepts of mendelian genetics, like alleles, recessive vs. dominant, genotypes, phenotypes, homozygosity, and heterozygosity, and the impact of Mendel’s findings on genetics. Students will be provided with a vocabulary sheet for these terms. 

Elaborate: The teacher (who has compiled all student questions into one survey) passes out copies to each student. Teacher reminds students of the implementation method they agreed on previously and instructs students to begin surveying the school.  

Evaluate: Student's will re-do the bellringer.

Other Materials: Vocab Sheet

Engage: The teacher will show a short video on Punnet squares to introduce the lesson

Explore: The teacher will present concepts of co-dominance, complete dominance, and incomplete dominance. The teacher will bring in flowers of different colors and have students describe the colors in terms of dominance.

Explain: The teacher will give a short introduction to Punnett squares and the patterns of inheritance they model.  

Elaborate: Students will, in groups, work through sample crosses on whiteboards.

Evaluate: The evaluation will be an exit ticket on the concepts of complete and incomplete dominance. 
Engage: Students will complete a bellringer of filling out a simple 2x2 Punnett square. Teacher will explain that the students will be introduced to a new software for their survey.  

Explore: As a class we will work through an example of the LaTeX software using example code and the compiled PDF

Explain: The teacher will explain what students will be expected to do with the LaTeX software, and describe what needs to be included in Section 1 of the final report (this can be found in the Writeup Rubric). 

Elaborate: In pairs, students will use the results of their family surveys, the class compilation of results, and the information on Mendelian genetics discussed over the past two days to write a rough draft of Section 1 for the final report using the LaTeX software. Evaluate: The rough draft will serve as the “Evaluate” for this lesson.

EngageBellringer will be to complete a 2x2 Punnet square. The teacher will talk about a genetic disorder like dwarfism and how it’s passed from parent to child. How would two people with dwarfism end up with average height children and children with dwarfism? (this will address a misconception that students may have that dominant traits are more common in the population) 

Explore: Students will complete a sample 2x2 Punnet square to refresh from last week, and be introduced to finding the percentages in which alleles appear in the offspring, and calculating the proportions of phenotypes and genotypes in the offspring. This will be in the form of a worksheet.

Explain: The teacher will explain how Punnett squares can be used as a model for more than one trait at a time, creating 4x4 Punnett squares. 

Elaborate: Students will have time to practice with these 4x4 Punnet squares and complete the remainder of the worksheet, filling in the squares and calculating the proportions and percentages as before.  

Evaluate: The worksheet will serve as the “Evaluate” for this lesson. 

EngageBellringer activity where student complete a 4x4 Punnett square and calculate the percentages for genotype and phenotype. The teacher will ask how Punnett squares work biologically, inciting a class discussion. 

Explore: Students will complete a short worksheet filling in the steps of meiosis and fertilization with different colored circles, representing different alleles, to show the outcome of fertilization, and compare it to the results of a Punnett square.
Explain: Think pair share. 

Elaborate: Look at the traits we see around the classroom. Teacher asks students if they see any patterns seen in the Punnett squares? Why or why not? Create a class discussion of whether or not making predictions using Punnett squares is accurate.  

Evaluate: The meiosis activity will serve as an “Evaluate” for this lesson. 
 Engage: The teacher instructs students to bring out their surveys for analysis. 

Explore: This is similar to compiling the family survey results from week one. Students tally number of people with each trait and add it to a class excel sheet to generate a graph. Asks the students if they see any trends.  

Explain: The teacher brings up the question of how we analyze the data and why we analyze data, followed by a class discussion on possible ways to analyze.  

Elaborate: Students in groups of two (the same partners they made the rough draft of Section I with) are given a different survey trait (possibly more than one depending on the size of the class) to analyze themselves. Students get the data from the main excel sheet and make a graph for that trait.  

Evaluate: The graph generated by each group will serve as the “Evaluate”
 Engage: The teacher will introduce students to a dilemma, are accidents more likely to take place during one hour or another during a factory worker's shift?

Explore: Think Pair Share on how they could prove based on a graph. The instructor then presents Chi^2 test. Students work through an example.

Explain: Think pair share

Elaborate: Implications of the test.

Evaluate: The chi square example.
Engage/Explore: Students are given a bellringer on Chi square to answer before class  Students are given time to use chi square to analyze the data for their question and determine if the data fits the expected global pattern. 

Explain: After performing the calculations, students will briefly tell the class the outcome of the test, and write it on the board.  

Elaborate: With time remaining, the teacher will explain what needs to be included in the rough draft of Section II and students will begin writing it in LaTeX. 

Evaluate: The rough draft.

Engage: Teacher will give a brief summary of what was done during the last class period, and what they are expected to accomplish in this lesson, including introducing the presentation on Survey 1.  

If students had not finished calculating the Chi square for their Survey II questions, they may finish that now. If they have finished, they will begin graphing and performing a chi square test on the Survey 1 data in the same groups of two.  They will have the remainder of the period to work on this project.
 Engage: Pose the question, are red heads going extinct? Hold a short class discussion to see what the students think.   

Explore: Allow students to research on the internet in pairs to answer the question. Students must provide clear evidence supporting their findings.

Explain: discuss how birth rates, death rates, immigration rates, and emigration rates, as well as other limiting factors such as resource availability, predation, etc. lead to changes in a population.  Discuss the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and its assumptions.  In a perfect situation, no allele would ever leave the population.  In the discussion, the teacher will also go over graphing the equation, and interpreting the graph. [If time doesn’t allow, some of the “Explain” may be moved to the next day]

Other Materials - Hardy-Weinberg Vocab Sheet

Elaborate: What could cause such a change within the human population? Students will be given data (number of births, deaths, emigrants, and immigrants). Investigation 2 Population Data. Students will be asked to analyze the data and determine what’s happening to the population, describe what’s happening at each phase in the graph, and come up with a scenario to fit the graph results.  Generate a graph for each of the three data sets given. Students will then create posters including these graphs.

Evaluate: Students finish making posters and present to their peers through gallery walk.  

Engage/Explore: Students will continue to work on their Survey 1 Presentations. The students will have the weekend to complete these presentations.

Explain/Elaborate: The teacher will explain what is required for the Section III rough draft, and the remainder of the class period will give students time to work on this using the LaTeX software.  

The Section III rough draft or Survey 1 Presentation work can be used as an “Evaluate” for this lesson.
 The teacher will introduce that students will be presenting their Survey 1 Presentations today.  

The remainder of the day will be spent listening to presentations made by each group. The audience to the presentations will constructively critique the presenters, highlighting strengths and weaknesses while adding suggestions to improve the presenters' work.

 Students will have the entire day to work on a rough draft of their final report.  This includes completing Sections I, II, or III from the previous weeks and compiling them into one cohesive report.  Students will have the beginning of the period to work on their final report.  

Each group will switch reports with another to peer review their work. Students will refer to the Writeup rubric when reviewing and make note of areas they may have missed, or areas that need improvement. This peer review will be written on a separate sheet of paper.  

After the peer review process, students will be given the remainder of the period to work on revisions.  

Students will have the period to make the final revisions to their report. Students reflect on what they have learned throughout the unit. The students list everything that they have learning explains it. Students also list things that they wish they had gone into more detail or new topics they wished they went into.

1. Bybee, R. W. (2009). The BSCS 5E instructional model and 21st century skills. Washington, DC: National Academies Board on Science Education.